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Sten


Chemical Formula of Testosterone Component: C27 H40 O3.
Molecular Weight of Testosterone Component: 412.6112
Molecular Weight of Base of Testosterone Component: 288.429
Chemical Formula of Base of Testosterone Component: C19 H28 O2
Chemical Formula of DHEA Component: C27 H40 O3
Melting Point of Base of Testosterone Component: 155 Celsius
Melting Point of DHEA Component: 90 Celsius
Active life of Testosterone Component: 14-18 days
Active Life of DHEA Component: approximately 7-10 days
Anabolic/Androgenic Ratio of Testosterone Component: 100/100



Sten is a drug that combines various components into one compound. It most commonly comes in 2 milliliter amps (when manufactured by pharmaceutical companies) and contains 20mgs of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 25mgs of testosterone propionate, and 75mgs of testosterone cypionate. This unique combination offers several advantages.

Testosterone is able to promote strength increases and muscular growth via numerous mechanisms. Of course first off testosterone promotes nitrogen retention in muscle therefore allowing the muscles to hold more protein and enabling repair and growth of those muscles. Secondly testosterone binds to the androgen receptor to promote receptor dependant mechanisms for muscular growth and fat loss. Testosterone also helps to increase the concentrations of androgen receptors in cells that are important for muscle growth and repair in muscle (1).

As mentioned, testosterone can play a role in promoting fat loss. Testosterone has the ability to bind to the androgen receptors in fat cells. This can enable the breakdown of body fat while and also deters new fat formation (2). Of course due to the fact that testosterone will encourage muscular growth, indirectly it will promote fat reduction because any excess calories are likely to be used in the muscle building process rather than being added as body fat.

Like most anabolic steroids, testosterone also increases red blood cell production. An increased number of red blood cells in the blood can improve endurance via better oxygenated blood as well as improving a user's ability to recuperate after strenuous physical activity. However it should be noted that there are other steroids and compounds out there that are far more adept at this function.

Among the other mechanisms that testosterone can help promote anabolism are via the increased production of insulin growth factor 1 it encourages, as well as suppressing the action of catabolic hormones in the body. In terms of performance enhancement, testosterone also offers numerous advantages. Namely it has the ability to increase the number of motor neurons in muscles and thereby improving muscular contraction. Like many other anabolic steroids testosterone also promotes glycogen synthesis. This will of course help to improve a user's endurance and strength by providing more fuel for intense workouts thus increasing endurance and strength, as glycogen is stored carbohydrates used as a fuel during exercise (3).

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is included in Sten, as it offers several benefits. First DHEA is a steroid hormone, or a prohormone, that is manufactured primarily from cholesterol via the adrenal glands. However small amounts are also produced by the brain, gonads and adipose tissue. DHEA is a precursor of testosterone, estrogen and androstenedione, meaning that DHEA is actually converted to testosterone in men (and estrogen in women). Obviously this would be quite beneficial for those males looking to improve muscle mass.

The benefits of DHEA are not limited to its status as a hormone precursor however. In some studies it has also been demonstrated to decrease insulin resistance (4), help decrease body fat (5) including abdominal and visceral fat (6), as well as improving one�s mental ability and sense of well-being (7). To achieve these desired effects, the recommend dosing required varies depending on the source one chooses to believe. Doses ranging from 5mgs to 2000mgs per day are no uncommon to see recommended. However, if one was administering Sten at a relatively moderate dosage the amount of DHEA being used should be more then enough to see these desirable results.


Use/Dosing

Due to the propionate ester that is contained in Sten, it is advisable that users inject the compound at least every other day and preferably every day to maintain fairly stable blood levels of the compound. Even with the long ester included, a less frequent injection schedule would result in rising and falling blood levels of the drug which could result in a worsening of side effects.

As with the other testosterone compounds, the doses of the drug that are taken by users varies to a great degree depending on the experience and goals of the user. Doses as low as 200-250mgs of testosterone per week have been reported by users who say they have made good gains, with experienced users administering several grams of testosterone per week. The range of use is very wide. This also includes women administering testosterone. It is because of the long active life of the cypionate ester in Sten, it is not recommended that women who choose to administer testosterone use it or other long-estered formulas. This is due to the fact that slow acting esters can not be quickly altered if negative side effects become overly burdensome. By having to deal with the slow release of the testosterone and not being able to lower doses or cease administration of the compound immediately, it makes it much more likely that any side effects that are experienced will be more pronounced and/or exaggerated. For this reason, females who use testosterone may want to begin with testosterone propionate or suspension when choosing which ester to use and not Sten.

However due to the cypionate ester users must wait approximately between 14 and 18 days after the last injection to have the compound clear their system so that they can begin post-cycle therapy. One may want to begin using a short acting estered testosterone during this time due to the declining testosterone levels. This would surely lead to a smoother transition to coming off of the compound.


Risks/Side Effects

Since the major component of Sten is indeed simply another form of injectable testosterone, the side effects associated with it are for the most part those commonly encountered with any type of testoserone compound. For more specific information about these, including those that may effect women, see the testosterone enanthate profile in this forum. In this section the side effects, and the characteristics of them, that are unique to Sten alone will be dealt with.

Users of Sten will often complain of injection site irratation and swelling due to the propionate ester that the compound contains. This is common for those that use testosterone propionate as a stand-alone compound as well. Some individuals find that the reaction that they experience with the compound is so bad in fact that they will have to cease administration of it. As well, due to the frequent injections of the compound and the possibility of injection site irritation, it is advisable that users rotate injection sites as frequently as possible so that no complications arise.

In terms of specific side effects related to the DHEA component of the drug, and those not related to the increase in testosterone in male users, is a possible link to heart arrhythmia (8). These reports are rather scant and not typical, but it is something that users should be aware of and monitor for.

Women may find that other shorter acting esters are more manageable than longer acting such as some of those found in Sten. This is due to the fact that the fast acting esters can be controlled easier and that the dosing and administration of the compound can be quickly altered if negative side effects become overly burdensome. With longer acting esters these adjustments are much more difficult to make rapidly and side effects could become more pronounced and/or exaggerated. For this reason, females who use testosterone may want to at least begin with shorter acting esters if they experiment with testosterone.



References

1.Schulte-Beerbuhl M, Nieschlag E. Comparison of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in serum after injection of testosterone enanthate or testosterone cypionate. Fertility and Sterility 33 (1980) 201-3.

2. Corcoran C, Grinspoon S. The use of testosterone in the AIDS wasting syndrome. AIDS Clin Care. 1999 Apr;11(4):25-6, 33-4

3. Crawford BA, Liu PY, Kean MT, Bleasel JF, Handelsman DJ. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of androgen effects on muscle and bone in men requiring long-term systemic glucocorticoid treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul;88(7):3167-76

4. Kawano H, Yasue H, Kitagawa A, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul;88(7):3190-5

5. Libe R, Barbetta L, Dall'Asta C, Salvaggio F, Gala C, Beck-Peccoz P, Ambrosi B.
Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on hormonal, metabolic and behavioral status in patients with hypoadrenalism. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004 Sep;27(8):736-41.

6. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2243-8.

7. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Roberts E, et al. Antidepressant and cognition-enhancing effects of DHEA in major depression. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29;774:337-9

8. Sahelian R, Borken S. Dehydroepiandrosterone and cardiac arrhythmia. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Oct 1;129(7):588.






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